Sunday, March 22, 2020

Top of Volcano Blown of in Blast! Essay Example For Students

Top of Volcano Blown of in Blast! Essay Top of Volcano Blown Off In Blast! 18/04/82 60 people were killed today when Mt. St Helens blew its top Mt. St Helens erupted two years ago today in a blast that caused the volcano to be reduced by 451 metres (1313 feet). The volcano is south-western Washington and is part of the Cascade Range. Mt. We will write a custom essay on Top of Volcano Blown of in Blast! specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now St Helens had been dormant since 1859 and has let off its first blast since then today. The volcano killed all life in an area of 180 sq. cm(70 sq. miles) including at least 60 people! The ash and dust spread much farther than this, of course. Today it is continuing to emit to emit dust and ash at intervals. Today a monument has been erected called the National Volcano Monument, in memory of this tragedy. How A Volcano is Formed A volcano is formed in this way: 1)Magma starts off below the crust. 2)Magma collects in chamber. 3) Pressure rises. 4) The pressure rises so high that the magma breaks through the crust and volcano erupts. Often volcanoes are cone shaped. You might ask: How do they get like that? This is the answer: When a volcano erupts many minerals and fragments are blown up, many falling in a circle around the volcano. As lava flows onto this it builds up around the volcano, so the volcano gets higher still. Each time the volcano erupts, more lava, minerals and fragments are emitted. Therefore every time a volcano erupts it erupts it gets taller, and some like Mt. St. Helens have even become tall enough to be classed a mountain. NB: This article originally contained pictures, elongating it and making it better presented. Aron Cohen,1991 Category: History .

Thursday, March 5, 2020

b. f. skinner essays

b. f. skinner essays B.F. Skinner born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania March 20, 1904 was a man known as B.F. Skinner. His real name was Burrhus Fredric, but he signed his name as B.F. since he was at the tender age of nine Skinner accomplished many things in his lifetime. He wrote several books, all about psychology Skinner was the first child of William A. and Grace Burrhus Skinner . During high school Skinner was involved in many activities, including writing for the local paper, playing the piano and saxophone, and inventing things. After graduating high school Skinner went to Hamilton College and graduated in 1926 where he majored in English language and literature. There after he went on to Harvard University, where he received a Ph.D. degree in 1931. Skinner stayed there until 1936 doing laboratory experiments . He the joined the University of Minnesota in 1937. It was during this time that Skinner wrote his first book The Behavior of Organisms .The book was quoted to be a fairly comprehensive s tudy of operant conditioning In this book the theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individuals response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (for example Thorndike and Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinners S-R theory. It could be verbal praise, a good grade, or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theo ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Chinese Birth Control Policy and gender discrimination Research Paper

Chinese Birth Control Policy and gender discrimination - Research Paper Example On the other hand, opponents of this policy have criticized the legislatures claim, and they argue that this policy had violated human rights especially when married couples are forced to an perform abortion or forced to use birth control methods. Additionally, in its approach towards population control, Chinese government has been established to discriminate against women. For instance, a report released by a United Nations Agency indicated that nobody in China reports cases of sex selective abortions, prohibition of infanticide and abandonment of female infants (Goh 15). In the current world, China has the highest population of over 1.2 billion, or 20 percent of the world’s population (Goh 57). However, the ratio between male and female is 120 males to 100 female (Goh 57). As the Chinese population control remains a significant issue in the Chinese government, the search for demographic goals has overshadowed the needs and interests of women and girls. This has led to seriou s discrimination against women in offices, abuse by officials and civil servants, and use of physical violence against women (Thoma 24). For instance, in many Chinese communities, women and girls are forced to be sterilized or use contraceptives, as a birth control method. ... ited for a number of significant achievements such as its international influence, huge and powerful military, its role in the free-market capitalism, and its growing prosperity. However, the issue of â€Å"One-Child policy†, which it introduced in the last three decades, still remains as a controversial issue, in the Chinese government. Communist Party officials insisted that they had to check population growth rate, and reduce the population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 (Thoma 9). In 1980, the party officials also announced that several couples will not be allowed to have more than one child, with the exception of some few individuals. Earlier in 1949, after decades of war, unrest and epidemics, which were perceived as economic boom, Mao Zedong claimed â€Å"Even if China’s population multiplies many times, she is fully capable of finding a solution; the solution is production† (Thoma 43). Mao’s main motive was that a larger population was a necessity for a modern industrialized state. After some years of economic growth and prosperity, Chinese legislatures realized that the growing population was almost overtaking the country’s food supply. In 1955, several political leaders, led by Deng, reversed Mao’s claim, and vigorously campaigned to promote birth control. In 1962, a massive famine hit China, and over 30 million people were pronounced dead. This made political leaders to intense their campaign for population control, and between 1970 and 1976, the China’s population had dropped by half the initial population (Thoma 56). China’s â€Å"One-Child† Policy In the aftermath, a policy that required married couples, especially from Han community, to give birth to one child was introduced. This policy, however, exempted ethnic minorities. Under the

Monday, February 3, 2020

Cash Flow Statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cash Flow Statement - Essay Example The secondary objective is to disclose information about the operating financing and investing activities of a company during an accounting period. The statement of cash flow gives an indication about the relationship between profitability and cash generating ability and thus the quality of profit earned. In brief, cash flow serves the following purposes: Under this method cash flow from operating activities is calculated on the basis of net profit as reported in the profit and loss account or balance sheet and is especially used when amount of sales is not given in the question. Few adjustments made under this method are as follows: For calculating operating profit before working capital changes, non cash and non operating items (such as depreciation, doubtful debts, dividend, and interest) are added back. The non operating incomes and gains are deducted from the net profit for the year. Decrease in current assets and increase in current liabilities is added back and increase in current assets and Decrease in current liabilities is deducted from the operating profit before working capital changes to arrive at cash generated from operations.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Interprofessional Collaboration In Practice Social Work Essay

Interprofessional Collaboration In Practice Social Work Essay Interprofessional education (IPE) is an occasion where two or more professionals learn with, from and about each other to facilitate collaboration in practice (CAIPE, in Freeth et al 2002:11). Barr (2005) noted that the level of care given to service users was adversely affected by the prejudice and ignorance some professionals brought with them when working together. IPE seeks to address this. Carpenter (1995) writes how IPE was therefore devised to improve the breakdown in trust and communication between professions. Service users have needs that cannot be covered by one profession alone (Means, 2010) hence the need for effective collaboration. The two day conference provided an opportunity for collaboration between a range of health care professionals There were a large number of nurses on my group table and I decided to make this experience a positive one and develop my learning to benefit my future practice. It appeared as though all members of the group were confident speakers and I briefly wondered if we would allow each other the opportunity to be heard or give each other time to talk. However, we all had space to talk, were listened to and valued for our contributions. I felt this was a positive start to the group work. We discussed the stereotypes attached to our professions, there were more for social work than there were for other professions, although I heard nurses described as rough and loud. Unfortunately one of the nurses in our group acted as judged when she had an argument on the second day with another nurse, in view of all attending the conference. Sellman, cited in Pollard, et al (2000:156:171) writes People have fixed ways of behaving and act consistent with their characters. He also voices how influences from a personal, professional and structural perspective can affect whether practitioners seek to be willing, trusting or leaders in interprofessional working. The behaviour of this student allowed others to see an unprofessional side of her and may have re-inforced prejudice. Mandy et al (2004) write about how the delivery of healthcare is affected by interprofessional stereotypes, rivalry and tribalism. It was refreshing to hear of the positive experiences some of the nurses had with social workers. Some nurses thought that social workers had a rough deal; a comment from one of them was Its so unfair; you are dammed if you do and dammed if you dont, but I think you people are to be admired for all you do. It made me realise that not all professions have a negative impression of social work. Whilst working on our group sentences (See Appendix), language differences were discussed. I felt confident to challenge the word of the use patient since social workers are employed in a number of settings, therefore the use of the word patient would not always be appropriate. Dalrymple and Burke (2006) and Martin and Henderson (2001) illustrate the terms used to describe those in receipt of services will always be a source of discussion and change, but it could be argued that the terms that professionals use can have negative connotations for the person. Bruce and Borg (2002) discuss the term patient reinforcing the sick role and creating the idea that the individual needs to be taken care of. The group agreed collectively to use the term service user, however Heffernan (2005) draws us to recognise that this term can be damaging to the ethical practices of social work. Heffernan proposes that labelling individuals with this term could disseminate their sense of dependence on servic es. Upon reflection I realised that as professionals we need to be sensitive to the preferences of the individual. Communication and service user involvement were issues discussed at great length within the group. The use of jargon between professions and illegible handwriting meant it was difficult to access information relating to care and made it problematic for service users to contribute. Reeves et al (2010:65) provides a devastating example of poor communication- a patient having wrong site surgery. We discussed situations that had poor outcomes for service users and its links to ineffective communication. On reflection, the absence of effective communication and constructive relationships within the interprofessional team impacted on the ability to work collaboratively. Hirokawa cited in Royeen et al (2009:49) highlights communication is the key component to interprofessional working and Tomlinson et al (2008:108) puts communication central in order to provide a non-discriminatory service that is promoting linguistic competence. Knowledge and clarity of roles is an element key to successful interprofessional teams. Reeves et al (2010:62) considers how Clear roles help define the nature of each team members tasks, responsibilities and scope of practice. She clarifies that where each members role is seen as essential and there are clear team goals teamwork is effective. Sargent et al (2008) adds to Reeves discussion, by making professionals aware that in learning about the roles of other disciplines, you need to be aware of how they complement your own practice, in order for effective teamwork to happen. The play by the Dramatic Voices drama group Up to here, allowed an insight into the perspectives of service users, carers and professionals and the tensions and conflicts within those roles (e.g. needing a break from caring, pressures of targets) whilst highlighting the frustrations when one feels unsupported. The DVD Alison Ryans Story by Patient Voices (2010) emphasised the importance of carers and their expertise of a condition, so should be listened to and more fully involved. Cooper and Spencer (2006) explain in their article the important contribution service users can make to IPE for students at the beginning of their training. Service users provided the students with real life examples of how they had learnt through experience, enabling them to become experts, and as such stakeholders within the interprofessional team. Interprofessional working has many benefits for all involved. It can eradicate barriers between professionals, whilst highlighting the value each profession has to offer. Combining the needs, skill and expertise from all professionals means that needs are identified sooner, leading to earlier and more effective intervention. A package of care that is focussed around the individual and is more co-ordinated with a faster deliver time should result in better outcomes. Tirrito et al (1996:31) examines the benefits; The client benefits from the collective wisdom, professionals benefit from the support of colleagues and society benefits from the elimination of duplicate services. Conclusions from inquiries and current policies have summarised that interprofessional education and working are essential to good practice. The National Service Framework for Mental Health (DH, 1999), The National Service Framework for Older People (DH, 2001) and The National Service Framework for Children (DH, 2004), Partnership in Action: New Opportunities for Joint Working Between Health and Social Services (DH, 1998) and the Laming Report (2003) have insisted practitioners to encompass an interprofessional attitude to their work. Despite the guidance regarding interprofessional working, there are regrettably cases where this has not occurred resulting in preventable deaths of children. Victoria Climbies death led to Lord Lamings report (2003), identifying the failures of professionals to protect her. Irrespective of this, Baby Peter in 2007 and Khyra Ishaq in 2008, die whilst under the care of several professionals. Serious case reviews from Haringey and Birmingham (2009 and 2010 respectively) regarding their deaths emphasise inadequate communication (amongst other failures) between professionals as well as missed opportunities for intervention. The Government green paper Every Child Matters'(2004) recommended changes to policy regarding information sharing to ensure all agencies obtain a full picture of a childs life. Following from this the government has released a new guideline Working Together to Safeguard Children (2010) which provides a national framework for individuals and professions. It sets out wa ys of working together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. This includes working together with an agreed plan of action, information sharing and recording and ensuring that their work is child-centred, that the focus is always on the child. This should ensure that further tragedies are avoided at all costs. 1332 words SECTION 2 DISCUSS HOW YOU WOULD TAKE AWAY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT ABOUT IP WORKING INTO PRACTICE The interprofessional conference was an immense learning opportunity for me. The importance of service user involvement, person-centred planning and communication within interprofessional teams highlighted in the conference gave me a lot to consider for future practice. Upon reflection of the conference, I was aware that I could be working with people who have not had IPE, so considered how I could collaborate with those that are not willing to encompass interprofessional working. This led me to contemplate previous experience, my previous placement experience, my next practice placement and where IPW fit into this. Every Child Matters (2004) require that all practitioners will be involved in information sharing that welcomes all views as equally valid; however I witnessed a situation that had the opposite effect. In my previous experience as a nursery nurse, I had raised concerns following a disclosure from a child. To summarise, the social worker dismissed my opinion, saying that I was unqualified to make any comment as I was just a nursery nurse. The reality that I had a lot of contact with this child was disregarded. Nurse (2007) discusses the difficulties in interprofessional working where one professional believes that only they have the expertise and knowledge to make a judgement regarding concerns. In the future as a SW in an interprofessional team I may be outnumbered by other professions, but I will present confidence in my profession and my role in order to be heard and will respect the view of other professionals regardless of job title or qualification. My previous practice placement allowed me to see an interprofessional team in action. I was able to observe a team meeting for a mental health team. There were professionals represented from health and social care backgrounds. All professionals were given time to address any concerns they had regarding a service user and were able to seek/offer advice from others. Medical and social perspectives were taken into account, allowing all professionals to work from their own theoretical base but working in partnership to provide continuity of care. Martin et al (2001) recognise how the sharing of background and experience while identifying peoples roles within the multidisciplinary team allows the members perspectives to be explored. This becomes a source of strength, with this integrated practice having benefits for service users and patients. I was grateful of the opportunity to witness the outcomes of effective interprofessional working. I am hoping for my next placement to be in a hospital setting. In order for my experience of IPE to be extended I will attempt to devise an action plan to maximise my learning opportunities and experience of interprofessional working. I would ask about the opportunities where professions interact and ask to be an observer to this (e.g. discharge planning meeting). I would ask for the opportunity to meet other students from other professions at the placement in order to share our learning experiences, professional policies and procedures in order to recognise similarities. I would arrange time shadowing other professions, in order to get a fuller picture of their role. I would also request time with my placement supervisor in order to reflect on IPW and its challenges, difficulties and benefits. This practice could promote relationship building for the future, as well as accentuating how other professionals can support my role as a social worker. It would allow me to identify and develop appropriate skills in my practice. Hostility between professions could be reduced and collaboration and team dynamics could be increased and improved as those who are not familiar to IPE can see it demonstrated in their students. The importance of service user involvement was highlighted in the conference. The Children Act 1989, National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990, and the Community Care (Direct Payments) Act 1996 were among the first pieces of legislation related to service user involvement. Policy guidance, practice guidance and service standards have developed from this. For example, the GSCC (2002) and Skills for Care (2002) provide guidance for social workers related to service user involvement. I had witnessed examples of poor practice in the past where the service user had no decision regarding their care (e.g. a woman who speaks Bengali having her treatment discussed about her with no translator sought to explain it to her). Service users now have more power to challenge decisions and refuse care should they wish, as they are now experts by virtue of their experience (Tanner et al (2008:6). Lishman (2007:270) reminds practitioners that holding meetings with individual service users, case conferences, advisory committees (to name a few examples) are power sharing structures in relation to decisions but the level of active listening by social workers and other professionals ensure the service users voice is heard and valuable to the decision making process. Wallace and Cooper (2009) highlight the importance of putting the service user at the centre and the organisations of services with and around them in order to break down the barriers of the organisation we work in. I recall on my previous placement a situation that provides an example of person-centred care. I was at a day centre of adults with dementia and was a observing a group of gentleman playing dominoes. Upon recognising a gentleman observing not playing, I discovered he couldnt remember how to play. Through joint reminiscing of our elders playing dominoes and allowing the gentleman to recall himself playing when he was in Jamaica, triggered his memory so he was able to play again. Brooker cited in Innes et al (2006:6) signpost four elements essential to providing person centred care, one of which is a positive social environment to enable the person with dementia to experience relative well-being. Providing culturally appropriate conversation, as well as time for this gentleman to reminisce allowed him to remember a part of his cultural identity that was of importance to him and through remembering how to play dominoes, was able to socially interact with other members of the centre. The role of a SW is very much dependant on the setting- assessment, crisis intervention, patient wellbeing and advocacy are just a few of the myriad of roles I could undertake. Holoskom et al (1992) demonstrate the multiple roles a SW could be part of in health care settings. It highlighted the lack of clearly defined role competences specific to social work. Wilson et al (2008) suggest à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦social workers are less able to define what their specific contribution to an inter-professional team might be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ .It could be argued however that SW are essential to how care is delivered. As a SW I could be helping patients problem solve and cope with situation or illness, link individuals with resources and services and promote effective and humanitarian service systems. Carlton, cited in Holoskom et al (1992: 8) stress the significance of the social workers as being the only professional who has the central foundation that a holistic perspective of the service user is o f utmost importance I have realised that it is important for me to enhance knowledge of medical issues so that I can be knowledgeable when talking to patients and can participate fully in interprofessional teams. The team will also gain knowledge about my role as a social worker with views, values and perspectives being shared in order for my presence to be visual and effective to the delivery and structure of health care. I left the conference with a positive attitude to interprofessional working. As one of the next generation of health and social care workers I will ensure that what I have learnt will be used in practice to ensure interprofessional working is at the heart of patient centred care. I would like to end with a quote that I feel expresses the process of interprofessional working: Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success (Henry Ford 1863-1947) 1310 words Appendix -Agreed Group Sentences Communication Issues between Health and Social Care Professionals Effective communication between the multi-disciplinary team including the service user and their family is paramount to client centred care. All communication should be clear and concise without the use of jargon or abbreviation to facilitate collaborative working. Contrasting professional perspectives / values within teams By considering the perspectives of the service users and other professionals, practitioners are able to broaden their understanding in order to improve delivery of care. There are contrasting perspectives and values between professionals but it is our responsibility and duty of care to compromise for the service users best interest. Stereotyping, power imbalances and team processes Although there may be perceived hierarchys within health and social care professionals, everybodys different skills, knowledge and input is variable to the needs of the service user at that particular time and therefore should not be translated into power imbalances and conflicts with the Interprofessional team.   It is human nature to form stereotypes of others but we must not  allow this to impact the care we provide to service users.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Caitlin LaGrone Research

Caitlin LaGroneDr. Ramsey English Composition II 19 April 2018Through a Soldiers Eyes Wilfred Owen utilizes his poems to display problems throughout war that soldiers deal with which is not easy. They face many trials that sometimes leads to death. Death does not care who you are or where you are when it is ready for you it will take you. Sacrifices are made, and it is a personal choice. He allows these poems to foreshadow what can happen or what they must conquer as their time as a soldier. Owen illustrates throughout his poems, â€Å"Anthem For Doomed Youth,† â€Å"S.I.W.,† and â€Å"Dulce es Decorum Est,† how the soldiers have faced multiple physical and mental challenges throughout their times during service. Throughout Owen's poem â€Å"Anthem For Doomed Youth,† he displays the physical hardships that are faced by soldiers but also the families of the soldier. Owen begins his poem with how the hardships are faced by a soldier and their families as well:What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  Only the monstrous anger of the guns.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattleCan patter out their hasty orisons (1.1-4). â€Å"The â€Å"passing-bells† is a demonstration of how the deaths are announced to the world. The soldiers do not get a real prayer or rights like the Christians get back home, they received the right to a rifle being shot at them. They received sounds of the â€Å"rapid rattle of gun fire (1.3),† as a choir instead of a choir from a church as they fall to death. Owen suggest that they are not getting the real respect from the organized religion for those dying on the lines when it comes to war. The families are faced with not being able to honor their family member the correct way. The soldiers are putting their life on the line for the country but are not getting the right recognition that they are so deserving of. Their families believe they deserve a true memorial service where they are honored with the respect they are deserved. The soldiers go through a lot, but it also takes a toll on the families as well. The soldiers faced many obstacles but the harshest one was watching one of their own hit the ground injured or experiencing death. Owen utilizes â€Å"what candles may be held to speed them all?  Not in the hands of boys, but in their eyes† (9-10), to demonstrate the soldiers' eyes lit up as they saw one of their family members lying on the ground suffering of and injury or death. Seeing one of their family members as they thought of them laying on the ground suffering was one of the hardest things for them to watch due to them all wanting to make it out alive together. The eyes of the surrounding brothers as a army soldier would call his friends are lit up with broken spirits and defeat. Harold Bloom illustrates that Owen's poems that war has gone far beyond religion since they all sin and do what is best for the country to obtain their freedom (Bloom par. 3)Also, Owen indicates an infliction with a solider that cannot decide between facing the hardships or going ahead and ending his life to avoid them in â€Å"S.I.W.† Struggling is not an easy thing to accept. At the beginning of the poem Owen exposes the father stating, â€Å"he'd always show the Hun a brave man's face (2),† but the son is honestly terrified but cannot dishonor his fathers wishes of him going in the army, so he puts on an act that he is brave. The kid only wanted to show his father that he was brave but did not want to let him down either. Merryn Williams suggests that the father believes that if his son commits suicide he will be dishonored because it is not an action that is honored like one that puts himself on the line for the country, committing suicide is too easy compared to being on the front line (Williams par.10), The solider is going through being shot at, depression, sickness, injuries, but also having to pretend to be brave when they are really terrified due to the fact they never know when their life may end or if they will even make it out alive. â€Å"Where once an hour a bullet missed its aim and misses teased the hunger of his brain (12-13),† is displayed throughout Owens poem as a display of how the soldiers brain hungers for a bullet as they are missed by them but also their brain gets jittery because they never know when one will strike. But sadly, the solider cannot take it any longer â€Å"this time, Death had not missed (26),† the self-inflicted wound theory took over his mental state and he followed through with it but made it look like it had been made on purpose due to the others finding a bullet within the body. Death occurred from the wound and could not be changed or stopped. During Owens poem â€Å"Dulce es Decorum Est,† he establishes more difficulties that the soldiers are having to face during the battle times. Daniel Hipp portrays the poem as the soldiers are dealing with shellshock due to their inabilities to walk and hear as their major flaws throughout the war times but also, they are drunk half the time which can affect their mental abilities and play a part in their flaws as well (Hipp par.26), any struggles that were faced were â€Å"Many had lost their boots, but limped on, blood-shod (5-6),† covered in blood and carrying themselves on just their feet was not an easy thing. They were sometimes covered in blood from head to toe due to all the action going on back and forth. Most had injuries but had to overcome the injuries and continued to fight for the achievement of freedom. Along with the injuries and no shoes they also faced â€Å"all went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind (6-8),† these defects affected their mind and did not allow them to have a mental capacity to comprehend what was going on around them or how to overcome not being able to deal with what was going around them. Some had to deal with higher up problems such as â€Å"Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! —An ecstasy of fumbling Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time (9-10),† some had to have quick reflexes to put a gas mask on without having any trouble and being very quick about it because they do not have much time to protect themselves from the gas being used against them. The characteristic of displaying fast reflexes can save themselves from the actions of destruction from the gas that is deadly. Throughout Wilfred Owens three poems he utilizes them to prove that being a soldier is tough but can be accomplished. A soldier is an honor and it takes a brave person to face the hardships and overcome adversity. Owen portrays these poems to display what a soldier is signing up for when they began thinking about the Army.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Comparing The Powerful Images of the Tyger and the War photographer Essay

William Blake and Carol Ann Duffy both utilize powerful imagery to describe the â€Å"War Photographer† and â€Å"The Tyger†, making similar statements about them. In addition, both poems use vivid imagery associated with the theme of religion and war. The use of imagery by both poets emphasizes the parallelism between the â€Å"The Tyger† and the â€Å"War Photographer† as it suggests that both these characters prey on death. For example, William Blake describes the Tyger to have a â€Å"fearful symmetry† and â€Å"fire† in its eyes. The words â€Å"fearful† and â€Å"fire†, create a semantic field of ferocity and danger associated with the Tyger. Furthermore, this highlights the savage and formidable side of the Tyger, making the predatory nature of such an animal prominent. The use of the word â€Å"symmetry â€Å" not only indicates the Tiger’s symmetrical appearance but also, on a deeper level may imply the ordered and mechanical manner in which it kills its prey. This is because the fact that its appearance remains symmetrical suggests how emotionless and insensitive it is when using the death of other animals to fuel its own ruthless mind and body. Although the â€Å"War Photographer† isn’t portrayed to this extent of barbarity, the fact that he uses death and suffering as a source of income is certainly similar to the Tyger’s situation. This is exemplified when Carol Ann Duffy says that the War Photographer â€Å"stares impassively at where he earns a living.† The use of the adverb â€Å"impassively† conjures up images showing how the War Photographer is so unemotional and machinelike in the way he takes pictures of the death and suffering of War just to â€Å"earn a living.† Therefore, in this way, the mental images formed in reader’s mind from each poem illustrate that the War Photographer is synonymous with the Tyger as they both cold-heartedly use the medium of death to improve their own lives. However, on other hand, the dichotomy of both the Tyger and the War Photographer is also made clear with the use of imagery. For example, William Blake also depicts the Tyger to be â€Å"burning bright.† This emphasizes the magnificence of the Tyger in a much more â€Å"bright† and positive manner, juxtaposing its deadly and dangerous side. The use of bilabial plosives in the ‘b’ sounds in â€Å"burning† and â€Å"bright† creates an explosive and energetic sound, creating images of an animated and vibrant animal, contrasting to the alternative dull and spiritless perception of the Tyger. Moreover, the depiction that the Tyger is a thing of beauty rather than terror is accentuated when the Tyger, which is â€Å"burning bright†, comes from â€Å"the forests of the night.† This paints a picture of the Tyger being something good coming out of evil as the words â€Å"forest† and â€Å"night† have connotations of something dark and sinister, contrasting to the magnificence of the Tyger’s brightness. William Blake also goes on to ask the question â€Å"Did he who made the Lamb make thee?† This is referring to God as the Lamb is depicted as the ‘Lamb of God’. This question reinforces the idea that there must be something good coming out of this seemingly deadly creature if God is its creator. The reason for this is that God is often pictured an omnipotent, benevolent figure and the fact that he created the â€Å"Lamb†, a symbol of complete innocence and purity, reinforces this. Therefore if he created the Tyger, there must be a positive outcome to its invention. Perhaps Blake is conveying the image to the reader that the valuable purpose of the Tyger is to create a natural order of balance in the world. Although on the surface its predatory nature seems only to have negative impacts, it is required to ensure the survival of not only its own species but also to prevent the overpopulation of prey species like the Lamb. This imagery implies that the Tyger needs to prey on animals such as the lamb in order to keep balance in the world, and to allow the circle of life to happen, a concept that is reinforced by the cyclic structure of the poem. Similarly, in War Photographer Carol Ann Duffy mentions how the War photographer â€Å"sought approval without words to do what someone must.† This adds a sense of morality to his job and the purpose of it, just like the creation of Tyger benefits the world in a much larger sense; he doesn’t do it just to earn money. This produces a contrasting image on the War Photographer as it suggests he is doing something right and â€Å"what someone must† as making people aware of the death and suffering in the world, is a step closer to resolving this problem of war. Furthermore, powerful imagery used by both C. A. Duffy and William Blake, emphasizes the duality of the Tyger and War Photographer. On the surface, both the Tyger and the War photographer seem to be emotionless and insensitive in the way they prey on death but the larger, meaningful purpose of each character is also portrayed. Powerful imagery is also presented in both poems via the theme of religion. For example, in War Photographer, strong religious imagery is created with use of the Bible quote â€Å"All flesh is grass.† This implies that all life is as temporary as grass and just like grass life will shine for its season but then wither, fade and die. Alternatively the â€Å"flesh† could be a metaphor for death, suggesting that death in war is as common and in huge numbers as blades of grass. Nevertheless, both these interpretations highlight the ephemeral nature of life in war. Perhaps Carol Ann Duffy uses the fact that quote stems from the Bible to almost blame Christianity or religion for allowing or creating War, which makes life so fragile and transient. Furthermore, maybe, C. A. Duffy conveys these religious images to the reader, to highlight the doubt she has in the supposed altruism of God for creating war. William Blake uses religious imagery similarly in the Tyger. â€Å"What immortal hand or eye, Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?† This questions the nerve of the â€Å"immortal† God to create such a â€Å"fearful†, dangerous creature. Perhaps Blake uses the terror of Tyger to represent the suffering and death in the world and in this way, he creates striking images to question whether God is truly beneficent. This image of an uncompassionate God is reinforced when God is questioned to have â€Å"dread hand† and â€Å"dread feet† for creating this creature. The use of the adjective of â€Å"dread† to describe God produces powerful images that oppose the assumed kindness of God, implying that this all-powerful figure may also harbour malicious intent. Perhaps Blake is alluding to the fearful Jehovah like image from the Old Testament, questioning whether in fact he is a benevolent figure for creating the death and suffering that the Tyger embodies. Therefore, the religious imagery in both the War Photographer and the Tyger question whether God’s good will for creating suffering in the world emphasized through the creation of the Tyger and War. An apparent difference in the portrayal of images between the 2 poems is that the War Photographer is closely related to humanity, whereas The Tyger focuses on images beyond human. In War photographer, C.A. Duffy emphasizes the effect of War on humans such as the â€Å"War Photographer† and the †readers† of his pictures. For example the War photographer’s hand is described to â€Å"tremble† when he is forming the pictures of â€Å"agonies.† The words â€Å"agonies† and â€Å"tremble† paint a vivid image of the hardships of his job and the amount of fear he has when witnessing the horrors of war. Therefore, the plight of the War Photographer evokes the base instincts of empathy from the reader. Carol Ann Duffy also goes on to mention, â€Å"The reader’s eyeballs prick with tears† when seeing the â€Å"agonies† in the pictures that the War Photographer takes. The use of the verb â€Å"prick† to depict how the readers weep when seeing theses pictures, illustrates how superficial and apathetic this response is, the photos just â€Å"prick† the surface of their â€Å"eyeballs†, it is not heart-felt or deep. Perhaps this displays that these readers forge even this feeble gesture of respect, as they have to go the extent of pricking their eyeballs to make themselves cry, as it does not come naturally. This is to â€Å"prick† is quite an abrasive or forceful verb may imply that they are forcing themselves to artificially show that they care, when truly â€Å"they do not care.† This gives the impression that the readers suffer from compassion fatigue, they are desensitized by the sheer number of horrific photos of War that are presented to them and subconsciously, they realise this lack of compassion but they do not want to display it. In this way C.A Duffy, brings this insensitivity that masked by artificial a cts of kindness of the viewers (of pictures of War), to the forefront of the reader’s mind. Furthermore this imagery is quite because it questions whether the reader (of this poem) deep inside, have this same indifference to the pictures of War, many readers would relate to the way they are often dismissive of these images (like the readers in the poem), making them almost feel guilty. However the visualization in the Tyger creates very different effects on the reader. The lexical patterning of the words â€Å"immortal†, â€Å"distant†, †wings† and â€Å"heaven† creates a strong impression that the only 2 figures in this poem (The Tyger and its creator) are superhuman and celestial, creating a very mystical tone to the poem. This is reinforced with auditory imagery through the incessant trochaic metre of the poem and the repetition of the word Tyger, very much chant or hymn like, re-iterating the supernatural theme to the poem as hymns are sung to emphasise the magnificence of God. Therefore, this leaves the reader is awe and amazement of the power of these 2 figures that belong to a world much beyond the one of a human. Thus, the imagery in the Tyger and the War photographer also has very different effects on the reader, one leaving you with emotions of empathy and guilt and the other with a sense of wonder. In conclusion, Carol Ann Duffy and William Blake both present powerful images of the figures of the War Photographer and the Tyger that make them very alike.